top of page

Voxel Printing of Volume EM Data

Voxel printing can show a much truer representation of your data by printing every single voxel in your dataset, rather than just a surface as is customary for 3D printing. This novel 3-D printing technique was first reported by Bader et al. in their paper Making data matter: Voxel printing for the digital fabrication of data across scales and domains.

The data processing workflow in illustrated below: (A) Initial volumetric data from which an external enclosure is generated in (B). (C) Layers are generated and processed in parallel. (D) Here, a voxel intersecting a layer is shown and (E) for each pixel within a given layer, its position information is used to find interpolated values for per-pixel material data from the surrounding voxel. (F) Material information is dithered into binary material deposition descriptions.

Some volume datasets which are homogeneous (i.e. densely packed neuropil) will benefit more from segmentation than viewing the volume in this way. Printing segmented datasets as a surface is nothing new, but printing inside a transparent block allows for multiple / nested segmentations and for even the finest details and unsupported structures to be preserved.


Voxel printing of SBF-SEM dataset of squid skin chromatophore. Left side is volume rendering. Right side is 3D print (size 105 x 28 x 43 mm).

Print Gallery

How to start?

Just send us the image stack and how you want it to look in a 3D colour rendering with colour information. We will then process it with our colour dithering algorithm to convert them to a printable file format and send it to print.

bottom of page